Dr. John Snedden
Eagle Ford Decline
SIPES HOUSTON CHAPTER
5535 Memorial Drive
Suite F 654
Houston, Texas 77007
Chapter Officers 2020
Steve M Smith
Technical Program Chair
Public Relations Chair
Deal Buyers List Chair
Continuing Education Chair
B. K. Buongiorno
In this issue
Letter From The Editor
NE Crass Prospect
Next Generation Independent Award
Green New Deal Defies Physics
US Roughnecks in WW2
Venezuela Oil on The Out
Energy Policy That Doesn’t Divide
Google Needs Electricity
SIPES LinkedIn Page
US Leaves Paris Agreement
Green New Deal Bad Science
LETTER FROM THE EDITOR
The December event will be the last Zoom event. January 2021 will begin regular in-person luncheons at the Petroleum Club of Houston. There will be no access remotely, no speakers will be recorded to be shared and posted. We all look forward to resuming a new year.
The vaccine is coming out which will hopefully drive more confidence in the market and return to productivity. I encourage you all to get the vaccine when available.
Going into 2021, oil will remain around $40-50/BO but Natural Gas prices will increase above $3/MCF. India, China, and Africa all have shown demand levels to reach pre-COVID levels in early 2021.
SIPES Houston will be hosting an invite-only prospect show in March. Prospects will be reviewed by the Houston Board before allowed to be presented at the event. If you have a prospect please send it to me to be added to the list.
If you have a prospect, you can put it in this Newsletter for $250.
Stay lean, stay hungry,
The North GOM Super Basin
SIPES ZOOM EVENT DECEMBER 17th, 2020 @ 10:30 AM
Sign up ONLINE to receive event details.
The northern Gulf of Mexico federal offshore area easily qualifies as a super basin, based upon estimated petroleum endowment over 100 BBOE and cumulative production of 60 BBOE. Like other super basins, it has multiple petroleum systems and stacked reservoirs. Examination of four key elements of these petroleum systems (reservoirs, source rocks (and maturation windows), seals, and traps yields important insights to the geologic processes that result in such an exceptional habitat for conventional hydrocarbons. The bulk of hydrocarbon resources in federal offshore waters are in Cenozoic sandstone reservoirs such as the Paleogene Wilcox reservoir of deepwater subsalt areas. Overall, Cenozoic sandstone reservoirs in both suprasalt and subsalt fields yield the highest flow rates and cumulative production volumes. Notable is the recent addition of the deepwater Jurassic Norphlet sandstone play, the newest and second largest by UTRR. Overall Gulf of Mexico reservoirs are diverse, formed in paleoenvironments ranging from aeolian to deepwater.
Powering this super basin are three primary marine source rocks centered in the Oxfordian, Tithonian, and Ceno-Turonian stages. These source rock intervals often act as top seals, but other Neogene and Mesozoic shales and even carbonate mudstones are also important trap sealing elements, as proven by analytical work and downhole pressure measurements. The extensive salt distribution and relatively late Cenozoic burial delayed source rock maturation and migration until culmination of trap formation in many areas. High rates of Cenozoic deposition on a mobile salt substrate also generated a myriad of salt tectonic structures ranging from simple diapiric closures and extensional fault traps to complex subsalt configurations such as salt-cored compressional anticlines, salt-cutoff traps, and bucket weld traps. Exploration success in the past 20 years is a direct result of improved seismic imaging around and below salt, as well as advances in drilling, completing, and producing wells and fields
SIPES NEXT GENERATION AWARD
Each year SIPES Houston awards one person as the Next Generation Independent. This individual is under the age of 40, an independent deal buyer or seller, member of SIPES, and made big strides in the industry. Jeff Allen of Allen Energy won this year. Jeff, along with Mike Jones, raised money and shot a new 3D when oil was only $23/bbl. This fight embodies the true grit of independents. Aside from drilling successful conventional wells, Jeff also has been a long time supporter of SIPES serving on both the local and National board.
Middle East Oil Price Rise, Asian Demand Recovers
As the United States and Europe falter under the weight of ever-increasing coronavirus cases and a general lull in markets, the health of the Asian crude market has arguably pulled crude prices and differentials away from the adverse ramifications of second wave coronavirus. China, India, Japan, South Korea; all of them are increasing their crude intake, increasing refinery runs and riding the waves of healthy refining cracks. At the same time, the early December OPEC+ meeting has tainted the upbeat sentiment a bit – the parties’ agreeing to meet every month to realign on the correctness of the production quotas and their splits infers a certain inherent fragility of the deal looking into 2021. The previous 6-month covenant had the benefit of providing strong binding guidelines for the market, whilst monthly quarreling on the necessity of putting out even more crude into recovering economies might create (unnecessary) market reverberations. Looking at the Middle Eastern OSP increases across the board, it might come as a bit of surprise to learn that, even though Chinese demand has been an instrumental element in Asia coming back to the crude market, its crude imports in December 2020 have palpably slowed down. This is due to a combination of concurrent developments – 2020 import quota limits running out and state refiners are approaching winter maintenance season. The prospects for January-February 2021 indicate further growth after the current lull, with West African grades showing considerable growth amid tepid interest in Europe (all of Angola’s spot January cargoes are going to China). As middle distillate cracks remain profitable enough, the usual suppliers of heavy barrels to China are the ones to suffer for now, as demonstrated by Brazil and Colombia seeing their exports decreasing for the third consecutive month already.
Amidst a general upbeat mood about Asian demand recovering back to where it should generally be, Saudi Aramco has issued its January 2021 official selling prices, a harbinger of things to come in the Middle East. The Saudi NOC has hiked prices across the board for January by 40-80 cents per barrel – the lighter the grade, the higher was the month-on-month increase. This was very much in line with what the market expected; having ensured that the OPEC+ talks do not collapse into chaos and perpetuate the good synergies of late 2020, Saudi Aramco’s OSPs reflected on the healthy middle distillate margins and increasing refinery runs in all of East Asia’s key economies. At the same time, European OSPs for Arab Light and Arab Extra Light were simply rolled over and the heavier streams were dropped by 50-80 cents per barrel as the Old Continent struggles to recover
The Asian marine fuels market deserves a separate mention as it has been one of the star segments of November-December 2020. The healthy cracks have incentivized refiners across the board to step up their production and seek additional spot outlets as the Q4 2020 Singapore low Sulphur crack spread heretofore hovered around $9-10 per barrel. Although market activity was muted in the past couple of days, it points rather to the market anticipating the Christmas and New Year festivities rather than to a structural weakening of demand. High sulfur marine fuel was seeing even better prices as some East Asian countries ran into unexpected bouts of shortage – first and foremost South Korea whose only HSFO producer GS Caltex is currently incapable of catering for the country’s needs all by itself, sending the South Korea-Singapore differential soaring some $50 per ton week-on-week.
Venezuela Sells Pipelines as Scrap
Venezuela’s capacity to produce some much-needed gasoline and diesel of its own hinges on a single oil play. To tap it, the Nicolas Maduro regime is willing to cannibalize the country’s crumbling energy infrastructure to pay contractors with scrap metal.
Unlike the tar-like crude from Venezuela’s Orinoco region, the light oil from Monagas state is the only kind that’s easy to process into fuel at the country’s aging refineries. It’s also the only area where production doesn’t require the help of sanction-wary partners.
So, with the U.S. considering further steps to curb the country’s fuel imports, cash-strapped state producer Petroleos de Venezuela SA is offering to pay for major repairs at pumping stations and compression plants in Monagas with scrap metal and parts from idled oil facilities, people familiar with the situation said, asking not to be named because the information isn’t public.
The move follows failed attempts to obtain $800 million in financing from suppliers, payable with crude and fuel, the people said. PDVSA is still offering to pay in crude or fuel, they said, but sanctions complicate such transactions and nothing has been decided.
The country so far has relied on shipments from Iran to ease a fuel shortage that often forces Venezuelans to queue for hours and even days to fill up, with many gas stations in Caracas shutting or rationing fuel.
The prospect of worsening shortages, increasing international isolation and growing social unrest has PDVSA grappling to revive a refining network crippled by years of mismanagement and pillage by criminal gangs. Boosting production and processing of light crude from Monagas is the country’s best shot at securing some measure of domestic fuel supplies.
The producer has already started dismantling some facilities to try to sell scrap, one of the people said, but it’s unclear what and how much has been sold.
PDVSA declined to comment on discussions with contractors.
Output from Monagas could become even more important for Maduro in the coming months if further U.S. sanctions target Venezuela’s barter for gasoline and diesel with its remaining clients in Asia and Europe. Without those suppliers, Venezuela will rely almost entirely on a dwindling group of sanctions-dodging traders for any gasoline imports.
The Trump administration has gradually tightened sanctions on Venezuela’s oil industry to facilitate regime change, a prospect that has become more elusive with Venezuela’s opposition divided on whether to participate in congressional elections in December. Any success in reviving — or simply stabilizing — oil fields and refineries will give Maduro additional leverage to remain in power.
From a high of almost 1 million barrels a day in 2008, Monagas’s output has slumped to 114,000 barrels at the end of August. It accounts for about a third of the country’s output. While Chinese and Russian partners continue to help with extraction in the Orinoco region, the crude in Monagas is so easy to produce that PDVSA has never sought help from foreign companies.
Sanctions have forced Venezuela to take steep discounts when selling or bartering its remaining crude production. Diosdado Cabello, the vice president of the ruling party, said the country hasn’t gotten any actual cash payments from oil since late 2019.
“You have a government that got almost $100 billion from oil, and now only gets $1 billion,” said Francisco Monaldi, a lecturer in energy economics at Rice University’s Baker Institute for Public Policy, and an expert on Venezuela’s oil industry. “I expect production to continue to fall, but it could go up when enforcement of sanctions isn’t as tough.” Fabiola Zerpa, Chron.com
Shell Drops out of Lake Charles LNG Project
Dallas pipeline operator Energy Transfer will proceed alone with the proposed Lake Charles LNG export terminal after Royal Dutch Shell has decided to leave the multibillion project.
Shell said Monday that it will continue to support Energy Transfer with the bidding process for a general contractor but will begin a phased exit. The announcement comes a week after Shell cut $5 billion from its 2020 capital spending budget during the current oil crash.
“This decision is consistent with the initiatives we announced last week to preserve cash and reinforce the resilience of our business,” Shell Integrated Gas and New Energies Director Maarten Wetselaar said. “Whilst we continue to believe in the long-term viability and advantages of the project, the time is not right for Shell to invest. Through the transition, we will work closely with Energy Transfer.”
Lake Charles LNG was developed as an import terminal, but that changed when the shale revolution resulted in record natural gas production in the United States. A federal December 2015 permit authorizes the proposed terminal to produce 16.45 million metric tons of LNG per year.
Negotiations with Shell, one of the top producers and traders of LNG in the world, delayed the project for years. Energy Transfer and Shell ultimately signed a March 2019 deal to split costs and responsibilities for the project. Energy Transfer remains committed to the project and will take over as lead developer, Executive Vice President Tom Mason said.
“We remain in discussions with several significant LNG buyers from Europe and Asia regarding LNG offtake arrangements as well as, in some cases, a potential equity investment in the project,” Mason said. “In light of the advanced state of the development of the project, we remain focused on pursuing this project on a disciplined, cost efficient basis and, ultimately, the decision to make a final investment decision will be dependent on market conditions and capital expenditure considerations.”
Kuwait Names New Oil Minister, Facing Liquidity Crunch
Kuwait’s emir on Monday approved a new cabinet that included new ministers of oil and finance for the OPEC member state which is mired in its worst economic crisis in decades.
The previous government had resigned following parliamentary polls this month in which opposition candidates made gains and around two thirds of lawmakers lost their seats. A priority of the new government will be to boost state coffers badly hit by the coronavirus crisis and low oil prices, including by trying to end legislative deadlock over a bill that would allow Kuwait to tap international debt markets.
The government communications office said Khalifa Hamade was named finance minister. He was a former undersecretary at the ministry. Mohammad Abdulatif al-Fares, who sits on the board of Kuwait Petroleum Corporation, was named oil, electricity and water minister.
Kuwait’s oil policy, which is set by a supreme petroleum council, and foreign policy, which is steered by the emir, are unlikely to change under the new 15-member government. The Gulf Arab state’s economy, which is worth nearly $140 billion, is facing a deficit of $46 billion this year.
Emir Sheikh Nawaf al-Ahmad al-Sabah, who took the reins in September following the death of his brother, has reappointed Sheikh Sabah al-Khalid al-Sabah as prime minister. Sheikh Sabah, who took the oath of office in front of the emir on Monday, called for united efforts “and especially by the National Assembly” to address challenges facing Kuwait.
Kuwait, a U.S. ally, has the most open political system in the Gulf region, with a parliament wielding power to pass legislation and question ministers, although senior posts are occupied by ruling family members. Foreign Minister Ahmad Nasser al-Sabah also retained his post in the new cabinet.
Hamad Jaber al-Ali al-Sabah was named defense minister. The interior ministry was given to an Al Sabah family member after having been held by a minister from outside the ruling family in the previous cabinet. Reuters
Iran Uses Disguised Tanker to Export Venezuelan Oil
A tanker chartered by the National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) is loading Venezuelan crude for export, documents from state-run PDVSA show, providing evidence of the two countries’ latest tactics to expand their trade in defiance of U.S. sanctions.
Venezuela and Iran have deepened their cooperation this year as Venezuela has exchanged gold and other commodities for Iranian food, condensate and fuel.
Names of scrapped vessels are being used by several PDVSA (Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A.) customers, including NIOC, to disguise the routes and identities of the tankers they use.
A very large crude carrier (VLCC), identified in PDVSA’s loading documents as the Ndros, arrived at Venezuela’s main oil port of Jose last week to load 1.9 million barrels of heavy Merey 16 crude bound for Asia, the documents showed.
Vessel-monitoring service TankerTrackers.com used satellite photos to show the Ndros was scrapped in 2018, confirming reports on international shipping databases.
Also using satellite imagery and comparing it with photographs, it said the VLCC’s real identity is the Liberia-flagged Calliop. Reuters could not independently verify that as the tanker’s name at the hull had been painted black before its arrival at Jose.
PDVSA, Venezuela’s oil ministry and NIOC did not respond to requests for comment. The U.S. Treasury Department declined to comment. Hong Kong-based Ship Management Services Ltd, which bought the Calliop in October, the shipping databases showed, could not be reached for comment.
A spokesperson for the U.S. State Department said that “reports of any impending deliveries would again illustrate the illegitimate regime in Venezuela has turned to international pariahs like Iran to enable their exploitation of Venezuela’s natural resources”. Iran sent a VLCC named the Horse to Venezuela in September. It delivered condensate, a very light form of oil, for PDVSA to blend with its very heavy oil to formulate exportable crude.The tanker returned to Iran in October carrying Venezuelan heavy oil for NIOC, PDVSA’s schedules showed. The tanker was misidentified at PDVSA’s databases as the Master Honey.
In the run-up to leaving office in January, U.S. President Donald Trump’s administration has tightened sanctions on Iran and Venezuela.
A handful of PDVSA’s customers that had been allowed to swap Venezuelan oil for fuel under U.S. sanctions had their authorisations suspended in October. But Washington has not intercepted vessels that contribute to the Iran-Venezuela trade.
Smaller Iranian tankers have also delivered gasoline to Venezuela, making several voyages between the two countries since May.
The U.S. Department of Justice in August seized 1.1 million barrels of Iranian gasoline bound for Venezuela on four privately-owned tankers.
The cargoes were transferred to two separate tankers that delivered the gasoline to U.S. ports for auction, in what the department said led to the largest seizure of Iranian fuel. (Reporting by Marianna Parraga in Mexico City, additional reporting by Arshad Mohammed in Washington Editing by Daniel Flynn and Barbara Lewis) Reuters
POP QUIZ! - Professor Steve Walkinshaw
International oil patch quiz time. Early explorers in this country were warned that travel in some areas was unsafe. One survey party could not locate a promising seep because their arrival had been greeted with “a hail of stones”. Numerous disappointments delayed the discovery of the first commercial oilfield here until the early 1960’s. One early dry hole, nicknamed the “unluckiest wildcat well” in the region, was later determined to have missed the principal reservoir in a significant field by less than 300′ (it was faulted out).
A large (~10.5 TCF / 350 MMBC) gas field was discovered here ~22 years ago (see the map). It went onstream in 2017.
Part 1: What country am I referring to? Part 2: What large gas field am I referring to? Part 3: What company discovered this field?
Part 4: What company currently operates the field? Part 5: What is the name of the principal reservoir? Part 6: What is its age?
Part 7: What’s the name of the adjacent field? Part 8: What salt basin are these fields located in? Part 9: What was the first oilfield discovered in this country?
Iran to Double Oil Output in 2021
Iran said it planned to roughly double oil production in the next year, as the country anticipates a loosening of U.S. sanctions after Joe Biden becomes president.
Oil Minister Bijan Namdar Zanganeh told lawmakers on Saturday the government aims to pump 4.5 million barrels a day of oil and gas condensate, which is a liquid form of natural gas, during the next Iranian calendar year beginning on March 21, the state-run Islamic Republic News Agency reported.
Zanganeh also said Iran will increase oil exports to 2.3 million barrels a day provided that the U.S. eases sanctions on the energy sector, IRNA reported, citing Jafar Qaderi, a parliamentarian who sits on the budgetary affairs commission.
The projected exports are expected to cover 25% of Iran’s budget for the year ending March 2022, Qaderi said, a sign that the Islamic Republic’s economy is reducing its dependence on income from oil.
Iran’s oil production has almost halved to 1.9 million barrels a day since U.S. President Donald Trump withdrew from a nuclear deal with the Islamic Republic in 2018 and tightened sanctions. Exports, as high as 2.6 million barrels a day three years ago, have dropped to just 133,000, according to data compiled by Bloomberg. Almost all of Iran’s shipments go to China.
Extra exports from Iran would cause problems for OPEC+, which is trying to keep output down and bolster prices in the face of the coronavirus pandemic. While Iran is an OPEC+ member, the cartel has exempted it from production cuts due to the sanctions and its economic hardship.
Biden, who is scheduled to be sworn in as president on Jan. 20, has signaled he wants to bring the U.S. back into the accord that was brokered when he was vice president under Barack Obama. Still, some traders doubt Washington will be inclined to allow more Iranian exports at a time when oil demand is constrained by the virus.
“I am not of the view that we are going to see too much Iranian oil in the market” in 2021, Mike Muller, the head of Asia for Vitol, the world’s biggest independent oil trader, said in an interview Sunday with Dubai-based consultant Gulf Intelligence.
“It’s just not a priority” for the U.S. to ease sanctions, he said, “unless fundamentals get so tight that the market calls for it and it seems like the right thing to do.”
These are three SIPES Houston members that have had discoveries in the last few months. To be a member of SIPES means you get to see their prospects first and learn from them. We all want to surround ourselves with other like-minded people. No better place than SIPES.
Mike Jones and Jeff Allen recently completed a well starting their goals of taking advantage of the coming strong gas market. Ryan Price of POCO, LLC is the operator.
Allen Energy, LLC
Eagle Ford Shale Production Decline 10% in 2021
Shale operators slashed their planned capital expenditure (capex) for 2020 to account for the oil price crash, which inevitably led to decline in drilling and completion activity in the Eagle Ford play. Hence, crude oil production is expected to drop by 10% year-on-year (YOY) in 2021, says GlobalData, a leading data and analytics company.
GlobalData’s latest report, ‘Eagle Ford Shale in the US, 2020’, projects that the gross crude oil production in this play would average at 1,017 thousand barrels per day (mbd) in 2021, down from 1,130 mbd in 2020. The gross natural gas production also may decline to 5,873 million cubic feet per day (mmcfd) in 2021, down from 6,327 mmcfd in 2020.
Andrew Folse, Oil & Gas Analyst at GlobalData, said “The Eagle Ford shale experienced one of the most drastic drops in rig count, from 81 rigs in February 2020 to only 18 in October 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic and related energy demand crisis. This attributed to a sharp fall in crude oil and natural gas production from the play this year.”
With oil futures averaging US$41.98 per barrel (bbl) for the first half of 2021, GlobalData forecasts that there will not be an uptick in oil activity in the Eagle Ford over the short-term. On the other hand, natural gas futures are expected to average at US$2.95 per thousand cubic feet (mcf) for the first half of 2021, which could spark some activity in the Eagle Ford and Austin Chalk formations.
Folse adds: “The short-term outlook for crude oil remains uncertain due to rising COVID-19 cases, and higher than normal global oil inventory that will restrict the upward pressure on oil price. However, natural gas prices in the US are expected to grow in the short-term due to strong LNG demand trend from Europe and Asia, coupled with the slowdown in shale gas production due to reduced activity.”
Eagle Ford’s 16 major operators cut capital spending by 44% or US$3.14bn, cumulatively, from an initial capex guidance of US$7.07bn in 2020. This had a bearing on the pace of drilling and well completions.
Folse added “The pandemic also forced some Eagle Ford operators, such as Chesapeake Energy and Freedom Oil and Gas, to file for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. Another prominent operator, Ovintiv, has reportedly put its Eagle Ford assets up for sale. Such developments may dampen the growth prospects in this play as long as oil prices remain below US$50/bbl range.”
OPEC Report Sends Oil Down
Having just recently agreed a new production quota, which along with vaccine hype has spurred oil prices to their highest since March, OPEC just reduced projections for global fuel consumption in the first quarter of 2021 by 1 million barrels a day, it said in a monthly report.
Demand will increase by just 500,000 barrels from that quarter — the same amount the cartel and its partners agreed they’ll add in January.
This sent WTI back below $47…
As Bloomberg reports, the 23-nation OPEC+ coalition led by Saudi Arabia and Russia will meet on Jan. 4 to consider whether they can press on with further monthly increases.
“Uncertainties remain high, mainly surrounding the development of the Covid-19 pandemic and rollout of vaccines, as well as the structural impact of Covid-19 on consumer behaviors, predominantly in transportation sector,” OPEC’s Vienna-based secretariat said in the report.
The alliance is currently idling 7.7 million barrels a day, or about 8% of global output. In three weeks, it will decide whether the January increase should be followed by another addition of as many as 500,000 barrels a day as it sets about reviving a total of 2 million barrels.
Additionally, stockpiles in developed nations remained 200 million barrels above their five-year average in October, according to OPEC’s report.
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SIPES 2020 SPONSORSHIP OPPORTUNITIES
□ Platinum Sponsor – $5,000
Full-page ad for 12 months in SIPES newsletter and recognition on the SIPES website.
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— The deadline for having company logos included in early event promotion is the 15th of the month prior to advertising initiation. Logos will be included in subsequent ads as received, and print deadline permitting.
— Logo files and ads should be sent to Jeff Allen at Jeff@AllenEnergyLLC.com
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SIPES 2020 HOSPITALITY SPONSORSHIP
Hospitality sponsors receive recognition at monthly SIPES luncheons in the form of a spoken announcement, projection of company logo onto presentation screen before speakers begin, the right to place marketing materials on tables, and the opportunity to give a brief overview of the company’s offerings. Given the high level of individual recognition, hospitality sponsors do not receive the additional benefit of advertising space online or in the newsletter.
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$800 per monthly sponsorship
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Buy This Book !
The Gulf of Mexico Basin is one of the most prolific hydrocarbon-producing basins in the world, with an estimated endowment of 200 billion barrels of oil equivalent. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the basin, spanning the US, Mexico and Cuba. Topics covered include conventional and unconventional reservoirs, source rocks and associated tectonics, basin evolution from the Mesozoic to Cenozoic Era, and different regions of the basin from mature onshore fields to deep-water subsalt plays. Cores, well logs and seismic lines are all discussed providing local, regional and basin-scale insights. The scientific implications of seminal events in the basin’s history are also covered, including sedimentary effects of the Chicxulub Impact. Containing over 200 color illustrations and 50 stratigraphic cross-sections and paleogeographic maps, this is an invaluable resource for petroleum industry professionals, as well as graduate students and researchers interested in basin analysis, sedimentology, stratigraphy, tectonics and petroleum geology.
SIPES Book Recommendation
A masterpiece of science reporting that tracks the animal origins of emerging human diseases.
The emergence of strange new diseases is a frightening problem that seems to be getting worse. In this age of speedy travel, it threatens a worldwide pandemic. We hear news reports of Ebola, SARS, AIDS, and something called Hendra killing horses
and people in Australia – but those reports miss the big truth that such phenomena are part of a single pattern. The bugs that transmit these diseases share one thing: they originate in wild animals and pass to humans by a process called spillover. David Quammen tracks this subject around the world. He recounts adventures in the field – netting bats in China, trapping monkeys in Bangladesh, stalking gorillas in the Congo – with the world’s leading disease scientists. In Spillover, Quammen takes the listener along on this astonishing quest to learn how, where from, and why these diseases emerge, and he asks the terrifying question: What might the next big one be?
SIPES Houston Chapter, 5535 Memorial Drive, Suite F654, Houston, Texas 77007
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